Advanced Higher Chemistry Unit 1

Unit 1 - Inorganic / Physical Chemistry

Good links for Unit 1 from SSERC:
https://www.sserc.org.uk/subject-areas/chemistry/cfe-advanced-higher-chemistry/

Electromagnetic Spectrum 

EM Spectrum Properties edit

Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation -

Electromagnetic Radiation - Revision of Basics
An entertaining presentation and revision of the basics of Electromagnetic Radiation (is that Matt Baker speaking ?!?) :
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/electromagnetic_spectrum/electromagneticspectrumact.shtml

Dual Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation :Is it like a wave or particle or both ?
Some Nobel Prizes which were based on this are discussed here :
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/ekspong/

Spectroscopy in a Suitcase - some interesting resources, particularly for some background reading - http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000280/spectroscopy-in-a-suitcase-students-resource?cmpid=CMP00000320

Energy levels in an atom
remember the energy levels are spaced more like this with a bigger difference in energy between n=1 and n=2 than for n=2 and n=3 etc etc

Hydrogen Spectrum
Here are the transitions between the various electron energy levels (the arrows!!) which result in the four coloured lines on the visible part of the Atomic Emission spectrum for hydrogen :



Emission and Absorption spectra of Hydrogen Helium Lithium and Beryllium :
http://scisyn.com/umuc/astro/ASTR100Notes/spectra-examples.html

Using/Making a simple CD Spectroscope 
You can make a very simple spectroscope from a CD (or even just hold one up to the light), to analyse emissions from lights such as neon / sodium vapour streetlight, candle light etc.  Details of making one are here and examples of what you might see :
https://www.cs.cmu.edu/~zhuxj/astro/html/spectrometer.html
or http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/waves_universe/exploring_spacerev6.shtml

So many words !!  Spectroscope vs Spectrometers vs Spectrophotometer
You may come across all these words but essentially they all allow you to view emission or absorption spectra across all the wavelengths and some allow you to measure and graph the results as well. Different from a colorimeter which you will come across later which measures at one particular wavelength only - although you can use a spectrometer to do that as well!

Wavenumber - you might need to know this too https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/harrison/cem483/wavenumbers.pdf

Flame Tests
Group 1 Elements - video of flame tests
http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00001120/ri-christmas-lectures-2012-group-1-flame-tests?cmpid=CMP00002100#!cmpid=CMP00002276
In the colours seen, we see energy emitted at a discrete energy level as electrons move from a high energy level to a lower energy level, emitting a discrete (definite) amount of energy which we perceive as a particular colour. Can also be viewed through a spectroscope to see the discrete levels.

How to do a Flame Test -
Using a wooden splint or toothpick? http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000759/flame-tests-the-wooden-splint-method

Another flame test video :
.....and some more !
(I love flame tests !!)
Energy levels and flame tests experiment in a lecture (Recommend to watch this)
Slightly hesitant explanation but nice to see the different colours from the lamps and flame tests of alkali metals. Only 3 mins long! http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00001248/the-alkali-metals-part-1#!cmpid=CMP00002461

Emission and Absorption Spectra :
"What is Spectroscopy" 
This page shows a Hydrogen Absorption and Emission Spectrum in Visible light.
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/ir_tutorial/spec.html

If you want to read more and in particular the physics of all this then here is a link to a book you might like - but this is mostly not necessary for Adv Chemistry !

Sodium Lamps - arc lamps
A sodium street lamp is an arc lamp which is an electric lamp in which a current travels through a gas between two incandescent electrodes and generates an arc that produces light. Also called arc light. The commonly seen Sodium street lamp actually also contains Neon which glows red as the lamp is starting up. Once the lamp has been on for about 10 minutes or so, you will see the orange-yellow glow of the Sodium emission. Find out more from this video about how this lamp works. Interesting to listen to - http://www.edisontechcenter.org/SodiumLamps.html
Lighting - Lots about different types of lamps and lighting- just if you are interested - not really Adv Higher Chemistry except for the sodium Arc lamps perhaps!
http://www.edisontechcenter.org/ArcLamps.html

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Atomic Emission Sepctroscopy can be used quantitatively (ie to measure how much of something there is) and qualitatively (to find out exactly what that thing is)-
http://www.andor.com/learning-academy/atomic-spectroscopy-atomic-absorption,-emission-and-fluorescence-techniques

Working out questions on this ... using the formulae from data booklet:

Orbitals
Nice link about s orbitals, p orbitals etc http://chemguide.co.uk/atoms/properties/atomorbs.html

Quantum Numbers
Each electron in an atom can be defined by its own set of quantum numbers - each electron has a different position ....
n = the principal quantum number = the shell
l = the angular momentum quantum number = the type of orbital eg 0 = s, 1 = p, 2 = d ....
m = magnetic quantum number = which orbital... eg -1, 0 , 1 for p orbitals...
s = spin quantum number = which electron in the orbital - 0.5 or + 0.5
etc.

Periodic Table
An interactive periodic table which allows you to select different elements to see if their outer orbital is an s, p or d orbital. Its useful to work through from the beginning and remember that its the outer layers that you are seeing :
http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/
Also you can use this table to check the spectroscopic notation for each element.

Shapes of Molecules
Spin a 3D Methane molecule
https://www.chemtube3d.com/vseprshapech4/
water
https://www.chemtube3d.com/vsepr-shape-water-is-bent/

Colorimetry - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
www.docbrown.info/page07/appendixtrans09.htm
If your school doesn't have a colorimeter then here is a method using simple electronics which could easily be bought and your school will surely have some of these parts. All you need to buy are some LED light bulb emitters and receivers and find some LEGO bricks would you believe! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RgiIxqBmt1E (from the CLEAPSS website)

This is very clever and simple to try at home if you download a light meter App to your mobile phone - From Royal Society of Chemistry Where he talks of Lux numbers here that is the amount of light that has transmitted through the coloured liquid. The higher the lux number the lower the Absorbance value - which is the value we normally refer to for Advanced Higher …

Some experiments to try using Colorimetry:
and ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoFGd8tWXAc - Spectrophotometric determination of Iron -may still be worth watching ... as you don't know what may come up in the Open Questions !

Calcium content in milk - complexometric titration and colorimetry: https://www.canterbury.ac.nz/media/documents/science-outreach/calcium.pdf

Beer Lambert Law / Absorbance - good explanation - though may be a little more information than you need for Adv H Chemistry ....Go to Reference

A bit about Colour !
In chemistry and pigments, the following happens ...
  • Black object absorbs all the colors of the visible spectrum and reflects none of them to the eyes. (think of a black object or clothes on a hot summer day - they absorb everything and get hot)
  • White reflects all the colours of the visible light spectrum to the eyes (their atomic bonds do not absorb any frequencies). (white clothes are ideal for a summer's day as they reflect all the heat) 
  • Colourless objects do not reflect the light, they are transparent to light, letting all frequencies pass 
If you want to read more about colour - and pigments - dyes and art etc then there is loads to read here - but its mostly just for interest - mostly not in the Adv H Chem course -
http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resources/art/colour#/ff3300

Bonding - some resonance structures :  (Not sure if these are definitely in the course but probably worth looking at, even if just for some general knowledge)
Lewis dot diagrams :
http://www.mikeblaber.org/oldwine/chm1045/notes/Bonding/Resonan/Bond07.htm

Interesting film about Forensic Science
Physics solving Crimes ! Using an Ion beam of X-rays and Gamma rays to obtain a spectrum of gunshot residue :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgbdaQWfjDk

Transition Metal compounds
Colourful manganese and vanadium compounds - colour varies depending on oxidation state of the compounds they are involved in:
Colour changing in Manganese 

Vanadium colour changes 

The Colours of Complex Metal Ions
This is worth printing out to keep and read : http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/complexions/colour.html

Another similar reference - worth a read through - about colours of complexes etc.
http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Inorganic_Chemistry/Coordination_Chemistry/Complex_Ion_Chemistry/Origin_of_Color_in_Complex_Ions

Colour Chart
Here is a nice chart of the colours of the different transition metals, depending on oxidation states - you don't need to know all these colours but its something colourful to hang on your wall and remind you that they do change colour depending on what ligands surround them http://www.compoundchem.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Transition-Metal-Ion-Colours-Aqueous-Complexes.png
Coloured Glass - another nice picture to print out : http://www.compoundchem.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/The-Chemistry-of-Coloured-Glass.png
- a video about colouring glass - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FJ4PGwDtSMs
    Transition Metal and Ligand Complexes + Naming them :
    EDTA - a hexadentate ligand with all sorts of uses - an interesting page from the Royal Society of Chemistry's excellent online magazine The Mole (PRINT THIS OUT TO KEEP !)
    http://www.rsc.org/images/TM0313%20Magnificent%20Molecules%20-%20EDTA_tcm18-230873.pdf

    Ligands etc - bidentate, hexadentate - useful information - http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/complexions/whatis.html

    Schweizer's Reagent - This is just a snippet of interest - one of the ligand complexes you might have named - and its use in making cellulose etc https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schweizer%27s_reagent

    Drawing Lewis Structures - electrons to create molecular structure (not sure if this is in CfE course...)
    http://www.chem.ucla.edu/harding/lewisdots.html

    Splitting of D orbitals - nice example at the bottom here :
    https://www.wou.edu/las/physci/ch462/tmcolors.htm

    Here is a very good resource about ligands, colour and splitting of D Orbitals :
    http://alevelchem.com/aqa_a_level_chemistry/unit3.5/s354/04.htm

    Quiz about Ligands at the bottom of this page - 
    http://www.a-levelchemistry.co.uk/AQA%20A2%20Chemistry/Unit%205/5.4%20Transition%20Metals/5.4%20Transition%20metals%20home.htm
    Try 5.4 part 1 and can check answers
    Do not try 5.4 part 2 at this stage as it is not all relevant

    Text Book - Transition Metals / Ligands etc - a nice book - nice illustrations - and a test at the end to try - use as an extra for wider reading .... it has roughly the same content but does not mention splitting of d orbitals etc so does not replace the Bright Red text book or Scholar etc
    http://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/assetslibrary/sectors/secondary/pdfs/science/heinemannscience/ocralevelsamplelessons/ocra2chemistry_studentbook9780435691981_unit2module3.pdf

    UV/Vis Spectroscopy Video
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O39avevqndU

    Shapes of Molecules
    Discover which molecules take up certain typical shapes :
    http://www.rsc.org/education/teachers/resources/databook/int_shapes_molecules_ions.htm

    Catalysis
    Fabulous video explaining the Cobalt 2+ to Cobalt 3+ being used as a catalyst as featured in Bright Red book page 25 - well explained video - watch it even if you already think you know about it !
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5neq2HVajoA

    Questions - You might want to start revising the earlier work - in which case there are questions here - Questions 1 - 15 are relevant so far ... answers can be obtained by emailing me your answers and I can check them.
    http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/images/questions_tcm4-121203.pdf

    Equilibrium, Le Chatelier and Equilibrium Constant K
    http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/equilibria/change.html

    Partition coefficient
    To explain this further I have worked through an exam question on this .. hope this helps you to clarify it a little ...



    Working out pH of Acids and Alkalis At Higher you need to know how to work out the pH from the concentration of Hydrogen ions, however the answer is usually a round number such as pH3. Or you may have to estimate pH within a range from a concentration so the answer might be for example - "between pH3 and pH 4" 
    Just out of interest (so will not come up at Higher) if you wanted to work out an exact pH (such as pH 3.5) or an exact concentration from a pH such as 3.5 then you need to use the "Log" button on your calculator which helps you work out values that are on a logarithmic (or exponential) scale. For some details read here :
    http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryquickreview/a/phreview.htm

    Ionic Product of Water KW and also temperature effects on pH of water
    http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/kw.html

    A nice demo - watch when doing topic on Acids / Bases and Indicators - second half of video tells you how it was done ! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arNyofkuBxM

    An Indicator- Phenolphthalein :
    http://www.chempage.de/lexi/phenolphth.jpg

    Buffer - Diagram of an Acid Buffer
    You can create an acid buffer to whatever pH you want, depending on the proportions of salt and acid you add in. And here is how an acid buffer would deal with keeping a steady pH when Hydrochloric acid is added :
    Very good explanation of Buffers from Chemguide - to go with my diagram above: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/buffers.html

    Working out Logs etc - this might help if you don't know which buttons to press on your calculator to work out logs etc for buffer calculations :





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    Delta G Delta S - Entropy - Free Energy in a system / reaction
    Visit Website with Explanation

    Spontaneous Reactions 
    ΔG, ΔH and ΔS
    http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Chemistry-Intermediate/section/20.2/

    Ellingham diagrams
    Diagrams plotting delta G vs Temperature for a reaction
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellingham_diagram

    Reaction Rates - First Order Reactions etc ...
    The first three pages of this section are useful, but page 4 I think is not in Adv H Chem and page 5 will become more understandable once you have completed Unit 2 Organic Chemistry :
    http://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/AssetsLibrary/SECTORS/Secondary/PDFs/Science/EdexcelScience/ALevelRevisionGuides/EdexcelA2ChemistryRG_9781846905964_pg8-17_web.pdf

    This is extra - not needed for Adv H - 1st yr Univ or maybe A Level but you might find it of interest -https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Kinetics/Reaction_Rates/Half-lives_and_Pharmacokinetics

    Rate Determining Step and working out Reaction Mechanisms
    Very good video ! Listen to all 14 minutes of it - it goes past very quickly and is very clear !
    Thanks to excellent Hartlepool Sixth Form College teacher !
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPFZR0Ut4Gk

    (Extra bits I need to double check are not in the CfE course but I think they are not !
    Ionic Crystal Lattice Structures (not in Revised for 2014....)
    You can rotate and examine the CsCl (8:8 ratio) and NaCl (6:6 ratio) typical crystalline structures here :http://www.neubert.net/Crystals/CRYStruc.html
    Chlorides (not in Revised....)
    http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/period3/chlorides.html  )