Higher Human Biology

What you need to know - the Course and Unit Support Notes from SQA - very important

Unit 1 - Human Cells

1.1 Division and differentiation in human cells

From Centre of the Cell :
Stem Cells, Cloning, Animal Experiements :

Stem Cells Information - including exercise on page 7/8 regarding ethics of an experiment

Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells 
VERY GOOD video about Stem cells - with the initial scientists Gurdon who got a Nobel prize and also Dolly the sheep featuring :


another interesting bit about Adult Stem Cells :

Some stem cell experiments etc used frog eggs (sometimes known as oocytes) as they are large to handle. To find out a little more about frog spawn / tadpoles / frogs etc then have a look at this very short video - the commentary is actually quite interesting if you can manage to hear what they are saying:

1.2 Structure and replication of DNA

Unit 1 Revision - BBC Bitesize 

DNA has a double helix structure but this was only discovered in the 1950s. This discovery led to three scientists, Watson, Crick and Wilkins gaining a Nobel prize in 1962. However another scientist, Rosalind Franklin, had carried out much of the research leading to this discovery. For background reading you might like to read these articles, (not completely essential for Higher Biology but interesting background reading and awareness of the recent history of science). It is so very recently that DNA structure was realised, and so many scientific advances and discoveries have then been possible as a result of this.
A couple of articles about the Story of Rosalind Franklin and her X-ray chromatography to find the structure of DNA :

Amazing Scale of DNA

This does not really come up in Higher, but this just gives an idea of the sheer scale of DNA. When you look at a chromosome you are looking at many many looped up sections of DNA !  How on earth did this ever evolve !
(video not available at the moment - its by John Kyrk...)

Details of DNA structure at 3' and 5' ends
You need to know what is at 3' end and 5' end of DNA so have a good look at the structure here :

Some classic experiments :

DNA Replication
Animations of Leading Strand vs Lagging Strand :

DNA Replication
This is actually a good video and covers a lot - if you can get round his slightly cringe-worthy rap presentation ! it covers DNA replication - leading strand vs lagging strand - history etc
Of the enzymes I would just focus on knowing the DNA polymerase and the ligase for Higher - dont worry about others that are mentioned

PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction


1.3 Gene Expression

DNA to Protein - nice short video to explain ! Only 2 minutes !


1.4 Genes and proteins in health and disease

Mutations Caused by Radiation


Point Mutations Within Gene causing Incorrect Protein to form

with example of Haemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anaemia

1.5 Human genomics

DNA sequencing can be done using electrophoresis
Here is how to set up Gel Electrophoresis :
Experimentally setting up a gel electrophoresis :

This is an interesting article showing the future of genomics and personalised medicine - from Chris Edwards in "Engineering and Technology" magazine.

The Human Genome Project
Completed in 2003 - up to 99% of genome had been sequenced by then. Here are some questions and answers about the project : https://www.genome.gov/11006943

1.6 Metabolic Pathways

Simple animation

Biochemical Pathway (or is it a jelly bean factory !!)

Feedback Inhibition

Using Green Fluorescent Protein GFP - good video with Professor John Christie of University of Glasgow for SAP - http://www.saps.org.uk/secondary/teaching-resources/1400-interviews-with-scientists-gfp-and-reporter-proteins

Genetic Control - Jacob - Monod Hypothesis
E.Coli - lactose metabolism
A good video - tells you just a little bit more about the theory than you need but it helps to understand how cleverly evolved bacteria are in how they manage to use lactose as a food supply if they find some in their environment.

1.7 Cellular Respiration


1.8 Energy systems in muscle cells

Fast twitch / slow twitch muscles http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/fastandslowtwitch/soleus.shtml

From Nerd Fitness - fast twitch / slow twitch muscles and athletics 

Creatine and muscles 

Unit 2 - Physiology and Health

2.1 The structure and function of reproductive organs and gametes and their role in fertilisation

Ovary diagram - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Order_of_changes_in_ovary.svg
On this wikipedia page is an interesting picture from Gray's Anatomy (a famous anatomy book) - a drawing of the Corpus luteum and different stages in egg production in an ovary - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_luteum

2.2 Hormonal control of reproduction 

An excellent resource about hormones here - has an animation about the influence of the human sex hormones on the human female menstrual cycle but also looks at some other hormones such as insulin, growth hormone etc that we need to know about as well. Includes some nice drag and drop quizzes. Has a bit at the end about plant hormones which is not in Human Biology but comes into Higher Biology !

2.3 The biology of controlling fertility

2.4 Ante and Post Natal Screening

Blood Types - A, B and AB

Try the quick game and see if you can chose the right blood type to transfuse to these patients !

2.5 The structure and function of arteries, capillaries and veins

2.6 The structure and function of the heart

Atrial Fibrillation

Nice explanation and video animation of Atrial Fibrillation - irregular heartbeat -http://video.healthination.com/new-york-daily-news3/atrial-fibrillation.html

2.7 Pathology of cardio vascular disease (CVD)

The Liver
A mind map of what the liver does :

Fat Digestion

An animation of fat digestion - quite a nice animation. There are more words used here than you need for Higher Human Biology so don't panic about those you don't know but listen out for bile, small intestine, micelles, lipoprotein, triglycerides, fatty acids, lipase, lacteal. (you might not recognise the word chime - an acidic mixture of partially digested food which leaves the stomach and passes into the small intestine)
Click here to see the animation

Here is another small step-through animation http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp50/5002001.html

2.8 Blood glucose levels and obesity

The Kidney

My diagram to attempt to further explain where exactly water, salts, urea etc get re-absorbed while passing through the kidneys 

Unit 3 - Neurobiology and Communication
Coming SOON !

Unit 4 - Immunology and Public Health

The Scale of Cells, Bacteria and Viruses etc.

A nice interactive example - use the slider to change the scale to show the size of various things like cells and viruses.
Spot the size of the prokaryotic bacteria E.coli versus the eukaryotic human cell examples :