Higher Biology CfE

There are three units in the new CfE Higher Biology :

Unit 1 DNA and the Genome

Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival

Unit 3 Sustainability and Interdependence


New Higher Biology Course :
Revised Higher Biology Past Papers - appears to be the same course so useful for revision- 
________________________________

________________________________

Here are a few fun online resources to help with your studying.

Unit 1 DNA and the Genome

DNA Replication

Unit 1 Revision - BBC Bitesize 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/topics/z3rcwmn

DNA
DNA has a double helix structure but this was only discovered in the 1950s. This discovery led to three scientists, Watson, Crick and Wilkins gaining a Nobel prize in 1962. However another scientist, Rosalind Franklin, had carried out much of the research leading to this discovery. For background reading you might like to read these articles, (not completely essential for Higher Biology but interesting background reading and awareness of the recent history of science). It is so very recently that DNA structure was realised, and so many scientific advances and discoveries have then been possible as a result of this.
A couple of articles about the Story of Rosalind Franklin and her X-ray chromatography to find the structure of DNA :
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/sciencechemistry/p/franklin_dna.htm
http://dnaandsocialresponsibility.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/public-unveiling-of-frieze-celebrating.html
_________________________________

Amazing Scale of DNA

This does not really come up in Higher, but this just gives an idea of the sheer scale of DNA. When you look at a chromosome you are looking at many many looped up sections of DNA !  How on earth did this ever evolve !
This video gives a good idea of the scale of DNA being packaged around the histone proteins:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbSIBhFwQ4s&t=7s
_________________________________

Details of DNA structure at 3' and 5' ends
You need to know what is at 3' end and 5' end of DNA so have a good look at the structure here :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directionality_(molecular_biology)#/media/File:DNA_chemical_structure.svg
________________________________


Some classic experiments :
_______________________________

Prokaryotes / Eukaryotes

Interesting reference about prokaryotes, autotrophs, bacteria, staining bacteria, cyanobacteria, etc. and their evolution and how they relate to eukaryotes in evolutionary time :
(New reference needed...)

The Scale of Cells, Bacteria and Viruses etc.

A nice interactive example - use the slider to change the scale to show the size of various things like cells and viruses.
Spot the size of the prokaryotic bacteria E.coli versus the eukaryotic human cell examples :
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/
____________________________

DNA Replication
Animations of Leading Strand vs Lagging Strand :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEQMeP9GG6M
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VefaI0LrgE
____________________________

DNA - refrigeration - and the taste of tomatoes - interesting research: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/10/17/refrigeration-really-does-ruin-tomatoes-according-to-science/

DNA Replication
This is actually a good video and covers a lot - if you can get round his slightly cringe-worthy rap presentation ! it covers DNA replication - leading strand vs lagging strand - history etc
Of the enzymes I would just focus on knowing the DNA polymerase and the ligase for Higher - dont worry about others that are mentioned
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1L8Xb6j7A4w

PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
http://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/pcr/index.cfm?age=Age%20range%2016-19&subject=Science%20in%20society
and
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter18/polymerase_chain_reaction.html
_____________________________

______________________________

Control of Gene Expression

DNA to Protein - nice short video to explain ! Only 2 minutes !
https://youtu.be/gG7uCskUOrA

RNA Splicing - http://content.dnalc.org/content/c16/16938/3d-splicing-audio-title.mp4


https://goo.gl/forms/wUqaAQlipJFzhyzG2


From Centre of the Cell :
Stem Cells, Cloning, Animal Experiements :
http://www.centreofthecell.org/centre/?page_id=3&ks=3

Stem Cells Information - including exercise on page 7/8 regarding ethics of an experiment
http://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/stemcellnew/.cfm?coSiteNavigation_allTopic=1

Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells 
VERY GOOD video about Stem cells - with the initial scientists Gurdon who got a Nobel prize and also Dolly the sheep featuring :
http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1781

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics4.aspx

another interesting bit about Adult Stem Cells :
http://www.kokhucredernegi.org.tr/eng/kok_hucre/eriskin.htm

Some stem cell experiments etc used frog eggs (sometimes known as oocytes) as they are large to handle. To find out a little more about frog spawn / tadpoles / frogs etc then have a look at this very short video - the commentary is actually quite interesting if you can manage to hear what they are saying:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgCL3JenMCs
________________________________

The Life of a Tree - Xylem and Phloem
This helps a little towards understanding how the rings of trees work - look for the cambium which is the meristem in trees.
https://www.arborday.org/trees/ringstreenatomy.cfm

My photograph of tree rings from Aberfoyle Forest - showing the softer areas and how the chainsaw chopping the tree down has affected the soft and hard wood. The new xylem and the cambium and phloem are on the top of my picture :


______________________________

Sickle cell anaemia
Inherited condition
http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/WhoAmI/FindOutMore/Yourgenes/Whatcausesgeneticconditions/Whatisrecessiveinheritance/Whatissickle-celldisease.aspx
______________________________

Cell Culture in plants :
What is a callus ?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callus_(cell_biology)

Tissue Culture of Plants
http://www.liv.ac.uk/~sd21/tisscult/case_study_3.htm

The story of the Henrietta Lacks cell line 
http://www.nature.com/news/deal-done-over-hela-cell-line-1.13511
______________________________

p53 Gene
The p53 gene was named molecule of the year” by Science magazine in 1993 after the observations that more than one half of human cancers expressed a mutant p53 raised extensive clinical possibilities - this website is devoted to the story of this gene, written by a researcher who was a young scientist working in the lab that first found the gene:
http://p53.free.fr/index.html   (you dont need to remember all of this but it gives you a flavour of the amount of research that has been done, including some that was done at the University of Dundee)
__________________________________


Cytoskeleton Revealed

The Cell cytoskeleton is revealed when red blood cells are placed in hypertonic solution :
_________________________________

DNA Sequencing

Experimentally setting up a gel electrophoresis :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vq759wKCCUQ

DNA Sequencing 
using chain terminating dideoxynucleotides
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nudG0r9zL2M
_______________________________

DNA Fingerprinting

http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter17/dna_fingerprinting.html

and

http://www.yourgenome.org/downloads/animations.shtml
______________________________

Species

The genetics of polar bears and grizzly bears - are they a different species ? and if so, why ?
Find out a bit more here : http://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscience/genetic-relationships-bears/
________________________________________

Mutations Caused by Radiation

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19245818
_________________________________________

Point Mutations Within Gene causing Incorrect Protein to form

with example of Haemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anaemia
http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/highersciences/biology/animations/mutations.asp 
________________________________________

Species

The genetics of polar bears and grizzly bears - are they a different species ? and if so, why ?
Find out a bit more here : http://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscience/genetic-relationships-bears/
______________________________________

Darwin's Finches and the Peppered Moth
Both feature on powerpoints you can find on this webpage :
http://www.arkive.org/education/teaching-resources-11-14

(for extra reading if you are interested - but its not necessary for Higher - study of finches and evolution - some ideas - eg is a species more likely to divide into two different groups when subject to no competition ? etc. does this mean competition increases genes expressed ? or will a species express a narrower range of genes (be healthier) when competing...) http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2014/03/bird-evolution/
_______________________________________

Evolution and Darwin
If you'd like to read more about Darwin and his research on evolution there is lots of good information here : http://darwin200.christs.cam.ac.uk/
_______________________________________

Evolution - genetic drift and gene pools animation
https://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter20/animation_-_mechanisms_of_evolution.html

A Lego animation of Founder effect, bottleneck and genetic drift: 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6JEA2olNts

Hybrid Zones

A story of crows :

Evolution documentary
how humans evolved - 45 min programme if you are interested :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsHEAnPX59Y
_______________________________________

Comparison of genomes from different species
Ape ancestry : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/03/120306-gorilla-genome-apes-humans-evolution-science/

Model Organisms
Useful in research into human genes and disease.
C. elegans - (Caeonorhabditis elegans) - a worm - http://wormclassroom.org/short-history-c-elegans-research

Evolution - which are our closest relatives ? Did you know we share 99% of our expressed genes (I think that is the correct way to say it ! - 99% of our exons ....)  with chimpanzees?
http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/whoami/findoutmore/yourgenes/wheredidwecomefrom/whatareourclosestanimalrelatives

Apes - interesting - http://www.livescience.com/51017-ape-facts.html

Inter-Specific and Intra-Specific Competition
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IiQTrA0-TE8
_______________________________________

8  Genomic Sequencing

The Human Genome Project
Completed in 2003 - up to 99% of genome had been sequenced by then. Here are some questions and answers about the project : https://www.genome.gov/11006943

Fabulous website about predator/prey - need to check where htis fits in in new course http://www.isleroyalewolf.org/overview/overview/at_a_glance.html

_______________________________________

UNIT 2 Metabolism and Survival

Revision from BBC Bitesize 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/topics/zck82hv

7... Metabolism and Enzymes

Sodium Potassium Pump
Animation
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter38/how_the_sodium_potassium_pump_works.html

Enzymes
Simple animation
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter5/proton_pump.html

Biochemical Pathway (or is it a jelly bean factory !!)
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter6/a_biochemical_pathway.html

Feedback Inhibition
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter6/feedback_inhibition_of_biochemical_pathways.html

8... Control of Metabolic Pathways

Genetic Control - Jacob - Monod Hypothesis
E.Coli - lactose metabolism
A good video - tells you just a little bit more about the theory than you need but it helps to understand how cleverly evolved bacteria are in how they manage to use lactose as a food supply if they find some in their environment.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBwtxdI1zvk

Using Green Fluorescent Protein GFP - good video with Professor John Christie of University of Glasgow for SAP - http://www.saps.org.uk/secondary/teaching-resources/1400-interviews-with-scientists-gfp-and-reporter-proteins

9..... Cellular Respiration

Glycoloysis
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter7/how_glycolysis_works.html

Citric Acid Cycle / Krebs Cycle
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter7/how_the_krebs_cycle_works.html

The last stage : Electron Transport Chain
The proton pump (H+ ions and ATP Synthase)
A nice animation :
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter5/proton_pump.html
____________________________________

10 ... Maintaining Metabolism

Measuring Metabolic Rate
Different methods possible - some more accurate than others and some easier to carry out !

http://www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/pima/adtech/adtech.htm

Elephant seals - can dive to great depths for 2 hours without needing oxygen:
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/group/elephant-seals/
_____________________________________

VO2 Max Measurement
Interesting video showing the stages of VO2 Max testing on a treadmill
http://www.jpverdisco.com/vo2-max-testing.html
_____________________________________

Different heart designs - mammals, birds etc - no resource at moment

Homeostasis
Animation of ADH affects :
http://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/hormones/horm8.cfm

Homeostasis - including a test :
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_pre_2011/homeostasis/

Good quiz from BBC Bitesize on Homoestasis / heart design in different animals etc
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zg2xxnb/test
____________________________________

11 ... Maintenance of Metabolism during Environmental Change

Estivation - how some animals survive a hot summer :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guaKB19V-ls

Torpor / Aestivation / Hibernation / Migration /Extremophiles / hot springs
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z9tppv4/revision
____________________________________

12 ... Growth and Metabolism of Micro-organisms

Plotting Exponential Growth on Semi-Log Graph Paper
http://www.intmath.com/exponential-logarithmic-functions/7-graphs-log-semilog.php

Primary and Secondary Metabolism in micro-organisms eg to get penicillin - no resources at moment
___________________________________

13 ... Genetic Control of Metabolism

Using the pGLO plasmid
This is a created or engineered plasmid that is used in genetic engineering. It contains the pGLO gene which is a gene from jellyfish that codes for a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and an Ampicillin resistance gene.
The pGlo plasmid explained : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PGLO
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOxbL3lafgQ

Transforming Bacteria by Recombinant DNA Technology
Restriction Endonucleases
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter18/restriction_endonucleases.html

Insulin being inserted into bacterial plasmid:
http://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/diabetes/diabetes6.cfm

Look its real !
You really can buy restriction endonucleases like BAM HI if you are working in a genetics laboratory or research organisation :
https://www.neb.com/products/r0136-bamhi
______________________________________

UNIT 3 - Sustainability and Interdependence

______________________________________

Chapter 14   Science of Food Production

Science of food production
Including Photosynthesis, Crops, Pests etc
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z23ggk7/revision/1
_____________________________________________

UN - Food & Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations:
http://www.fao.org/home/en/

Chromatography of Leaf Pigments

This short video shows a time-elapsed film of the Leaf pigment chromatography experiment to separate chlorophyll a and b, carotene and xanthophyll : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6jD0hJO-28
_______________________________________________

Chapter 15  Photosynthesis and Productivity

A very simple video showing the effect of light or dark on Elodea pondweed :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xRMKiLlpATk
If you can collect the oxygen bubbles and measure volume of oxygen given off under different conditions of light intensity etc.

Nice diagrams of Photosynthesis Carbon Fixation here :
http://www.biology-online.org/1/4_photosynthesis.htm

Limiting Factors in Photosynthesis

The three limiting factors which we study are temperature, availability of carbon dioxide and light intensity. The Bitesize website has a good explanation of the types of questions involving graphs which you might come across :
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/biology/cell_biology/photosynthesis/revision/5/
_____________________________________________

Chapter 16 Breeding Plants and Animals for Food

Hybrid Vigour 
In Poultry / Chickens / Hens:
http://poultrykeeper.com/chicken-breeds/hybrid

The 1000 Bulls project
Project to sequence the whole genomes of bulls of important breeds - find out more about why:
http://www.cabi.org/animalscience/news/23964

Pedigree Bluefaced Leicester Sheep
Choosing the hardiest sheep are retained for breeding at Logie Durno farm.
Mimicing "natural selection"
http://www.logiedurnosheep.co.uk/maternal-sires/bluefaced-leicester/
_____________________________________________

Potato Council
Find out the types of things that potato farmers and researchers study in order to improve crop yields:
http://www.potato.org.uk/

Chapter 17  Crop Protection

Potato Blight
Interesting newspaper article about amateur gardeners, the weather and potato blight :
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/9609742/Gardeners-blamed-for-spreading-potato-blight.html
_____________________________________________

Chapter 18 Animal Welfare

No resources yet

Chapter 19 Inter-relationships and Dependence

Symbiosis and Social Behaviour
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zp9887h/revision

Some examples of symbiosis among animals eg the zebra and ostrich or the honeyguide bird and people or badgers :
http://www.thomsonsafaris.com/blog/symbiotic-wildlife-tanzania/
_____________________________________________

Malaria parasite
Excellent but hard hitting animation on how malaria infects a human from a mosquito bite and what happens :
http://bcove.me/w41bb4xs

Coral Bleaching - excellent short 3 minute video explaining about the symbiosis in Corals and what can go wrong with climate change :
https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/coral-bleaching

Chapter 20 Social Behaviour 
no resources yet

Chapter 21 Biodiversity

Biodiversity
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zs8wwmn/revision/1

Invasive Species
Non native species which cause harm to environment, other species or human health
From the Encyclopaedia of Life - EOL website - http://eol.org/info/460

Invasive Species
Here is another interesting link about green algal seaweed which has invaded the mediterranean sea. There is a quiz to try on there too - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/algae/about.html

Antartica braces for influx of invasive species http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2013/01/07/antarctica-braces-for-influx-of-invasive-species/